Below is a summary of the published 2002 article written by Yvette Mahé. A PDF version of the article has been posted below for your convience. Please observe the copyright notice, thank you.
Cultural continuity in French-speaking communities in Western Canada depended on qualified bilingual or French-speaking teachers who were willing to resist schooling that conformed to Anglo-Canadian goals. However, as this paper will show, such nationalistic teachers were scarce due to assimilationist language laws, teacher training institutions, teacher certification policies, bilingual schooling and administrators’ practices, all of which had an impact on the creation and maintenance of bilingual teacher shortages before 1940.
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