Francophone Publications: Bilingual School District Trustees

Below is a summary of the published 1997 article written by Yvette Mahé.  A PDF version of the article has been posted below for your convenience.  Please observe the copyright notice, thank you.

Bilingual school district trustees Historical Studies in Education/Revue d’histoire de l’éducation, 9 (1), 65-82.
Francophone elites saw trustees who managed small public schools in French-speaking communities as a key source of cultural continuity. However, when trustees tried to satisfy the French community’s linguistic and cultural demands, they were faced with constraints imposed by the dominant English-speaking government officials. By studying bilingual school trustees’ experiences in Alberta before 1940, one acquires a sense of how unequal power relations are produced and reproduced in the education system, and how a dominant group’s cultural knowledge becomes socially legitimated.

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Francophone Publications: Bilingual School Teachers

Below is a summary of the published 2000 article written by Yvette Mahé.  A PDF version of the article has been posted below for your convenience.  Please observe the copyright notice, thank you.

Bilingual school teachers 1940Mahé, Yvette T.M. (2000) Bilingual school teachers’ cultural mission and practices in Alberta before 1940. Journal of Educational Thought/Revue de la pensée éducative, 34 (2), 135-163.

This socio-historical paper explores how bilingual school teachers in the past responded to competing Francophone and Anglophone ideological cultural reproduction discourses in their curriculum practices.  An in-depth study of the cultural curriculum of 265 teachers who taught in public schools in French-speaking communities in Alberta during the period 1934 to 1939 sheds some light on how the exercise of power can influence teachers’ decisions to either give legitimacy or resist reproducing in their classrooms certain forms of knowledge and cultural orientations.

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Francophone Publications: Official and Unofficial School Inspection

Below is a summary of the published 2001 article written by Yvette Mahé.  A PDF version of the article has been posted below for your convenience.  Please observe the copyright notice, thank you.

and unofficial school inspection as hegemonic and counter-hegemonic struggle in Prairie Districts before 1940Mahé, Yvette T.M. (2001) Official and unofficial school inspection as hegemonic and counter-hegemonic struggle in Prairie Districts before 1940.  Canadian Ethnic Studies/Études ethniques au Canada, 33 (2), 31-51.

This paper examines how state inspectors and « visiteurs d’écoles (unofficial inspectors) shaped hegemonic and counter-hegemonic cultural practices in bilingual school districts in Prairie Provinces before 1940.  The study allows us to better understand why state inspection constituted a threat to Francophone cultural continuity, and why Francophones constructed a counter-hegemonic curriculum and named “Visiteurs des écoles bilingues” to negotiate their legitimacy in Anglo-dominant public schools.  Therefore, bilingual schools represent sites where Francophones and Anglophones carried on a struggle to maintain and reproduce their language and world-view.

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Francophone Teacher Shortages In Alberta

Below is a summary of the published 2002 article written by Yvette Mahé.  A PDF version of the article has been posted below for your convience.  Please observe the copyright notice, thank you.

French teacher shortages and cultural continuity in Alberta districts, 1892-1940Mahé, Yvette T.M. (2002) French teacher shortages and cultural continuity in Alberta districts, 1892-1940.  Historical Studies in Education/Revue d’histoire de l’éducation, 14 (2), 219-246.

Cultural continuity in French-speaking communities in Western Canada depended on qualified bilingual or French-speaking teachers who were willing to resist schooling that conformed to Anglo-Canadian goals.  However, as this paper will show, such nationalistic teachers were scarce due to assimilationist language laws, teacher training institutions, teacher certification policies, bilingual schooling and administrators’ practices, all of which had an impact on the creation and maintenance of bilingual teacher shortages before 1940.

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Francophone Publications La Survivance

Below is a summary of the published 2004 article written by Yvette Mahé.  A PDF version of the article has been posted below for your convenience.  Please observe the copyright notice, thank you.

francophone publicationsMahé, Yvette T. M. (2004) “La Survivance” discourses and the curriculum in French-speaking communities in North America, 1840-1960. Journal of Educational Thought/Revue de la pensée éducative, 38 (2), 183-207.

A comparative study of the cultural resistance curriculum artfully integrated in the English Program of Studies by patriotic teachers who taught in Franco-American and Canadian bilingual schools before 1960 disclosed that the French curriculum was based on the Quebec Program of Studies. “La survivance” discourses concealed in the French textbooks were founded on a defensive form of nationalism which blended language and faith and were designed to incite young Francophones to continue their ancestors battles for linguistic, religious, and educational rights.

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